Franken (Franconia) Jewish

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Regional Research > Germany, after 1989 > Bavaria > Franken (Franconia) > Franken (Franconia) Jewish


General Information Franken

Jewish Population in Franken

In Franconia existed large Jewish communities very early. This was a result of the expulsion of Jews from Altbayern (today’s area of Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria and Upper Palatinate) and the Imperial Free Cities (Reichsstädten) in the 15th and 16th Century. They found refuge and protection with the landed gentry and in many Franconian villages and erected their Synagogues there. Around 1813 lived approximately 30,000 Jews in Bavaria. In 1813 the Bavarian Jews Edict (Bayerische Judenedikt) was issued (lasted from 1813 to 1861). Jews were now allowed to acquire Civil Rights and own lands. Yet, the included Matrikelparagraph also restricted the number of Jewish families living in a certain place and therefore restricted freedom of movement and the lives of Jews. As a consequence many Bavarian Jews (had to) emigrate to other German States and as well to America. In 1840 over 4,100 Jews lived in Bavaria, most of them in the City of Fürth (Bayern) (Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia), where more then half (2,535) of the Bavarian Jews were at home. Until 1867 the number in Bavaria more then double and was 9,200. In the same year the Jews in Bavaria got equal rights and were emancipated. (Abolition of the immigration restriction for Jews in the Kingdom of Bavaria.)

Their number was continually on the rise and was over 23,700 in the year 1900. Beside other factors this was due to the increasing immigration of Jews from the East, e.g. Russia since 1881. Meanwhile the largest Jewish community was Munich, where over 8,700 Jews had their homes. The reason for this is the fact that following the emancipation many Jews moved from the rural areas to the larger cities. Until 1910 the number of Bavarian Jews doubled to nearly 46,100, yet after this, it declined, so that 1925 nearly 41.300 and in 1933 only 35,400 Jews were living in Bavaria. After 1933, due to the more and more increasing discriminations of the Jewish population following the NS-Government take over, the number of Bavarian Jews declined continually, e.g. Munich from 9,000 in the year 1933, to 4,500 in the year 1939, to 7 in 1944.

Before 1933 there were nearly 200 Jewish communities in Bavaria, most of them in Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia) and in Unterfranken (Lower Franconia); five of them had over 1,000 members: München 10,068 (this was 1,5 % of the population); Nürnberg 8,603; Fürth (Bayern) 2,504; Würzburg 2,261 and Augsburg 1,203 members.

After 1945 there were only twelve, after 1990 thirteen Jewish communities, yet only one of them has over 1,000 members (Munich with a little over 1,800).

In 2002 in Bavaria were the following Jewish communities, sorted after their members numbers (in brackets the number of members in 1989, in bold type are Franconian places): München 8,605 (4,051), Straubing 1,706 (142), Augsburg 1,294 (237), Nürnberg 1,171 (337), Würzburg 1,026 (169), Bamberg 854 (103), Regensburg 672 (115), Fürth (Bayern) 509 (180), Bayreuth 453 (39), Hof 319 (38), Weiden 310 (49) und Amberg 247 (78). Today there live totally about 16,500 Jews in Bavaria. In Germany today there are ca. 83 Jewish communities with ca. 100,000 members, plus approximately additional 80,000 Jewish Citizen who are not part of a community.


Former Jewish communities in Franken

Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia)

Jüdische Geschichte in Fürth (sitemap)
Jewish History in Fürth  -  sitemap
(in English and German)
Chronologie jüdische Gemeinde in Fürth 1440-1945
inkl. alter Bilder und Fotographien 
Chronology Jewish Community in Fürth 1440-1945,
Incl. old pictures and photographs
Die Juden in Fürth - Schlaglichter 1792-1914
Article: The Jews in Fürth - Overview 1792-1914;  
(in German)
Die jüdische Gemeinde Fürth im Jahre 1819

Bevölkerung, Gewerbe, Organisation, Hauseigentümer,
Ärzte, Stadtplan, u.a.

The Jewish Community in Fürth in 1819.
Population, Trade, Organization, House Owners,
Physicians, City map a.o.
Chronik der jüdischen Gemeinde in Fürth 1933-1943;
(in Englisch)
Chronicles Jewish Community Fürth 933-1943
Gedenktafeln, Grabsteine Fürther jüdischer Soldaten  
Memorials, gravestones of Jewish soldiers from Fürth,
inkl. Fotos, (in English and German)
Ausstellung Synagogen in Fürth  -  Artikel Article: Exhibition - Synagogen in Fürth;   (in German)
Der Matzenbeck von Fürth  -  Artikel Article: About a Jewish bakery in Fürth;    (in German)
Bestandsliste (CAHJP) für die Stadt Fürth, pdf.file
List of (CAHJP) holdings for the city of Fürth; a pdf.file;
(in German)
Jüdisches Museum Franken in Fürth  -  Homepage
Jewish museum Franconia in the City of Fürth; - homepage  (in EN+DE)
Jüdisches Museum Franken in Fürth  -  Artikel Jewish museum Franconia in Fürth; - article   (in German)
Jüdische Geschichte in Nürnberg (sitemap) Jewish History in Nürnberg  -  sitemap;   (in EN+DE)
Chronologie jüdische Geschichte Nürnbergs 1146-1945
Chronological Jewish history in Nuremberg 1146-1945;
(in German)
Gedenktafeln, Grabsteine Nürnberger jüdischer Soldaten
Memorials, gravestones of Jewish soldiers from Nürnberg,
(in EN+DE)
Jüdische Geschichte in Wilhermsdorf  -  sitemap Jewish History in Wilhermsdorf (sitemap);  (in German)
Chronologie jüdische Gemeinde Wilhermsdorf 1096-1945
Jewish community in Wilhermsdorf, 1096-1945)
(in German)
Links für Orten in Mittelfranken  (in Deutsch)

Baiersdorf, Burghaslach, Gunzenhausen, Hüttenbach, Lauf, Scheinfeld, Sugenheim

Links for Middle Franconian places (in English)

Baiersdorf, Burghaslach, Hüttenbach,
Lauf, Mainstockheim, Nürnberg u.a.

Buch: "Mesusa 3"  (Aisch, Aurach, Ebrach, Seebach)
Jüdische Friedhöfe in: Burghaslach, Uehlfeld (Mittelfranken),
u.a. (online+Buch)
Jüdisches Museum Franken in Schnaittach Jewish museum Franconia in Schnaittach  (in German)
Die Judenmatrikel 1813-1861 für Mittelfranken
auf CD-Rom
The Jewish Registers 1813-1861 for Middle Franconia,
on CD-Rom, (in English and German)

Oberfranken (Upper Franconia)

Geschichte jüdischen Lebens im Fürstbistum Bamberg History of Jewish life in the "Fürstbistum" Bamberg;
(in German)
Juden in Bamberg Jews in Bamberg (history and more);   (in German)
Links für Orte in Oberfranken (in German)

Bayreuth, Buttenheim, Forchheim, u.a.

Links for Upper Franconian places   (in English)


Buch: "Mesusa 3";  (Aisch, Aurach, Ebrach, Seebach)

Die jüdischen Friedhöfe in: Aschbach, Mühlhausen, Lisberg,
Reichmannsdorf, Walsdorf, Zeckern, sowie Burghaslach
Uehlfeld (Mittelfranken);  (online+Buch)

The Jewish Cemeteries in places:
Aschbach, Mühlhausen, Lisberg,
Reichmannsdorf, Walsdorf, Zeckern,

and Burghaslach and Uehlfeld (Mittelfranken);

Unterfranken (Lower Franconia)

Jüdische Gemeinde Würzburg und Unterfranken The new Jewish Community and Culture center;  (in German)
Jüdische Gemeinden Würzburg+Unterfranken, Geschichte
(in German)
click on: "Die Gemeinde" (community); "Geschichte" (history)
Juden Würzburg, 1900-1945, (Datenbank) Jews in Würzburg, 1900-1945, (database)
Jüdische Gemeinden in Unterfranken (im 20. Jhr.)  - Liste List of Jewish communities in Lower Franconia (in the 20th Century)
Literatur - Jüdische Geschichte in Unterfranken; (A-L) Literature - Jewish history in Lower Franconia; (A-L)
Literatur - Jüdische Geschichte in Unterfranken; (M-Z) Literature - Jewish history in Lower Franconia; (M-Z)
Geschichte der jüdischen Gemeinde Kitzingen;  (in English) Jewish Community of Kitzingen - history
Geschichte der jüdischen Gemeinde Mainstockheim;
(in Englisch)
Jewish Community of Mainstockheim - history
Links für Orte in Unterfranken  (in Deutsch)

Bad Kissingen, Ermershausen, Kitzingen, Kleinsteinach,
Poppenlauer, Schwanfeld, Urspringen, Würzburg, u.a.

Links for Lower Franconian places  (in English)

Castell, Ermershausen, Kitzingen, Mainstockheim

Deportation der Juden aus Mainfranken, 1941/43
Deportation from Mainfranken, Photo-Exhibition and Book,
(in German)

Former Jewish communities in Bavaria (general)

Chronologische Geschichte der Juden in Bayern (906-1945)
History of the Jews in Bavaria: The Years 906 - 1945;
(in EN+DE)
Karte: Früheste jüdische Ansiedlungen in Bayern Map: earliest Jewish Settlements in Bavaria
Das Bayerische Juden Edikt, 1813-1861
The Bavarian Jew Edict (1813-1861);   (in EN+DE)
Index Jüdische Geschichte in Bayern
Anklickbarer Kartenindex mit Links zu Orten
Index Jewish History in Bavaria

Clickable map index with links to info about the shown communities

Links zur Geschichte der Juden in Bayern
Links zu REIN Deutschsprachigen Webseiten
Sites dealing with the history of Jews in Bavaria

Links to ONLY English language sites

Liste Historischer Stätten u. Museen in Bayern Jewish historical sites and museums in Bavaria;  
[in EN+DE]
"Für das Vaterland starben"

Denkmale und Gedenktafeln bayerisch-jüdischer Soldaten,
inkl. Ortsregister und Namenslisten

"They died for their Fatherland",

Memorials and gravestones of Bavarian-Jewish soldiers,
incl. place register and name lists [in EN+DE]


Zentralarchiv, Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland Central Archives for Research on the History of Jews in Germany
Homepage des CAHJP in Jerusalem
(Bestandslisten, Kontaktinformation u.a.)
Central Archives History of the Jewish People (CAHJP)
Bestandslisten CAHJP, jüdische Gemeinden in Deutschland CAHJP holdings of former Jewish communities in Germany

Literature Jewish Population in Franken

Genealogical Literature

  • The Jewish Registers 1813-1861 for Middle Franconia, CD-Rom
    • Contains 2042 Scans of the original Jewish Registers
    • Introduction and user interface in German and English language
    • Table of content, surnames and places index (german/english)
    • Introduction and index additionally available as PDF-Files

Historical Literature

  • Jüdische Kultur in Franken. Daxelmüller, Christoph, Würzburg: Echter, c1988. 212 p.: 86 ill.; 20 cm.
  • Jüdische Landgemeinden in Franken: Beiträge zu Kultur und Geschichte einer Minderheit. Tuchersfeld: Fränkische-Schweiz-Museum, 1987. 109 p.: 3 maps; 20 x 21 cm.

Counties and Independent Cities in Administrative District Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia)

Ansbach (City) | Erlangen (City) | Fürth (City) | Nürnberg (City) | Schwabach (City) |
Counties: Ansbach | Erlangen-Höchstadt | Fürth | Neustadt an der Aisch-Bad Windsheim |
Nürnberger Land | Roth | Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen |

Counties and Independent Cities in Administrative District

Oberfranken (Upper Franconia)

Bamberg (City) | Bayreuth (City) | Schweinfurt (City) | Coburg (City) | Hof (City) |
Counties: Bamberg | Bayreuth | Coburg | Forchheim | Hof | Kronach | Kulmbach | Lichtenfels | Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge |

Counties and Independent Cities in Administrative District Unterfranken (Lower Franconia)

Aschaffenburg (City) | Schweinfurt (City) | Würzburg (City) |
Counties: Aschaffenburg | Bad Kissingen | Haßberge | Main-Spessart | Miltenberg | Rhön-Grabfeld | Schweinfurt | Würzburg |

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