Heydekrug

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Regional Research > Lithuania > Heydekrug

Regional Research > Historic territory > Germany 1871-1918 > Kingdom Prussia > East Prussia > County Heydekrug > Heydekrug

The main street in Heydekrug
Bridge over the Schieß-river in Heydekrug


Contents


Introduction

View of Heydekrug from the tower of the Evangelical church

Heydekrug, County Heydekrug, East Prussia

Name

The place developed from an inn on the heath near the place Werden. In the beginning the inns were very simple and had only six drinking vessels. Mostly the owner of an inn was German and its function was to deal with goods and news and to show the Baltic country people more about German culture and language.

Other Names and Spellings

Meaning of the Name

  • Old-Prussian "šila, sīla, sylo" = heath, heathland, spruce forest
  • Prussian-Lithuanian "šilas" = heath, sandy heath, spruce forest, but also thyme and the month September
  • Old-Prussian "karcemo, karczemo, karčemo" = inn, combined with food market

[9] [10]

Municipal Coat of Arms

The municipal coat of arms of Heydekrug (left) with the elk`s palm,
and two acorns.


Today`s municipal coat of arms of Šilutė (right) with two sails,
a Curonian pennant and a post-horn.


General Information

County Heydekrug
  • in 1919 small market town[11]
  • According to the list of places: Lange[12]:
  • chief town of the district with a railway station
  • east of the Ruß(river) - mouth of the delta
  • 93 km north east of Königsberg
  • in 1939: 5236 inhabitants
  • founded in 1511
  • harbour on Schieß-river
  • estate, saw mill, factories, schools, sports field

Adjacent Places

To Heydekrug adjacent places
In the East: Werden
In the South: Stentzel Starosta
In the West: Rupkalwen
In the North: Schießgirren

Source:[13]

Political Structure

Church Structure

Ev. church in Heydekrug before 1945
Ev. church in Heydekrug in 2008

Evangelical Church

Until 1912 Heydekrug belonged to the parish of Werden, after 1913 Heydekrug became a parish.

Adjacent Places

In 1913 the following places belonged to the parish of Heydekrug : Bismarck Eastern part, Heydekrug place and estate, Lapallen, Rupkalwen, Szieszgirren, Szlaszen, Trakseden.

Church books

The originals of the church books of Heydekrug still exist in Berlin, although with gaps because of vandalism. (Evangelisches Zentralarchiv Berlin).

  • Baptisms 1913-1944 with big gaps for the last decades
  • Marriages 1913-1944 with gaps
  • Deaths 1913-1944


Inside the Church

<
Altar (photo: Knut Stegmann)
Organ (photo: Knut Stegmann)


The church was consecrated on the 10th November 1926. The artist Prof. Dr. Richard Pfeiffer (1878-1962) from Königsberg, designed and executed the interior.

Particularly impressive and quite unique is the 80 sq metre large fresco in the presbytery, in which you can see more than 120 people. Biblical figures such as Noah, Moses and King David are depicted as well as Catholic saints, reformers such as Martin Luther, but also poets such as Simon Dach, composers such as Johann Sebastian Bach, priests and other prominent personalities from history.

Sources:

  • Informationsbroschüre „Ev. Kirche zu Silute (Heydekrug),leaflet from the Ev. church in Silute
  • Schoenborn, Das Überflüssige ist das Allernotwendigste – Richard Pfeiffer und die Fresken in der Kirche zu Heydekrug, in Annaberger Annalen Ausgabe 15/2007 S. 177-246 about R.Pfeiffer and the frescos in the church of Heydekrug

Catholic Church

In 1907 Heydekrug belonged to the Catholic parish of Szibben.

The Catholic church in Szibben is a brick building in neo-Romanesque style,
with Gothic elements. The western tower is in the Gothic style.
The church was finished in 1903.
The church is in the east of the city near the railway. Opposite
on the other side of the Tilsiter Straße is the ev. cemetery, behind the railway.
The Catholic church still exists today.
The photo on the right was taken in 2008.

Cath. church in Heydekrug with orphanage
Catholic church in Heydekrug, 2008

Jewish Community

Jews in Heydekrug

  • You can find a list of Jewish inhabitants of Memelland on the page Jews in Memelland.


Grandfather`s 80th birthday in Heydekrug

Hanna Sieff donated the photo of her family.
In the photo you see her father David Smolianski with his father, stepmother and 8 children.
(In front) Isaak`s father next to Isaak`s stepmother Fanny.
Behind him are his sisters (from left to right), Rachel, Jenny, Anna, Lena and Dora.
In the top row are the brothers Julius, Max, Leo and Hanna`s father David.
Thank you for sending us your treasured family photos!

We are very grateful to receive any relevant data, photos or documents. Contact

S y n a g o g u e

In Heydekrug there was a Synagogue.
It was in the Sudermannstraße
(today Vytauto gatve).
The Synagogue was burnt down in Feb 1939
after the invasion of German troops.
There are no traces left.

Jewish Cemetery
The Jewish cemetery was west of the railway.

Location of the synagogue in Heydekrug
Jewish Cemetery in Heydekrug - L L- , Synagogue see arrow (to enlarge click several times on the map) on MTB 0694 Heydekrug (1910-40)


In 1857 a synagogue with a bath was built in Russ for the Jewish Community and another in 1863 in Heydekrug. In 1837 a cemetery was built in Russ.
It had to be given up in 1844 and a new one was set up in Heydekrug .
According to the census of 1904, 204 Jews were living in the county Heydekrug .[21]

From a lecture of Ruth Leiserowitz:
...The Jewish community in Heydekrug slowly grew, although it was never as big as the community in Ruß. In 1855, 36 Jews lived in Heydekrug and 6 in Szibben. In the whole county there were 89 Jewish people with Prussian nationality. In 1880 the number grew to 332. We do not have any numbers for Heydekrug. ...
...In 1863 Heydekrug had a separate Jewish community. The first Rabbi was Israel Schatz, in the modest synagogue. Synagogue and cemetery are not preserved. ...[22]

Civil Registration

County Court in Heydekrug
Volunteers on the cemetery in Heydekrug

Adjacent Places

In 1907 the following places belonged to Heydekrug:
Barsduhnen, Cynthionischken, Heydekrug, Schlaszen, Szieszgirren.

Civil Registration

The civil registers of Heydekrug are almost completely missing. In the Litauischen Historischen Staatsarchiv - Lithuanian Historical State Archives in Wilna could be the following registers:

  • Births: 1939
  • Marriages: 1939
  • Deaths: 1939

Inhabitants

  • in 1719: Heydekrug, a köllmisch estate in the county Heydeburg, the owner is David Klein. Source:[23]
  • in 1719: "Mister" Davidt Klein owns 12 Huben. Source:[24]
  • in 1791/92: Amts Heydekrug, Consignation von denen Decimenten, Pro anno 1791/92, Seite 53, a taxlist [1]
  • Inhabitants of Heydekrug

Addressbook

Cemetery

You can find the cemetery of Heydekrug on a special page

Streets

You can find the streets of Heydekrug on a special page

Schools

Already around 1775 there was a small school in Heydekrug. An inventory list (page 17) says that they had:[2] 1 table and 1 desk (both without feet). 1 Lithuanian book with biblical historical stories, 1 Lithuanian Bible. Slate, school-catalogue and blackboard are missing. Signed by Johann Christoph Szade.

Herderschule

Herderschule

You can find the building in Herderstraße 2-6.

Photos of the School

Final year class (A- levels) in 1934 of the Herderschule in Heydekrug . The decoration on the reveres are "Alberten", golden needles given by relatives or friends to show that the person has the right to study at the Albertina-university in Königsberg .

A-levels in 1934

  • You can find the official list of people in ASCHMANN, Georg Harry: Die Herderschule zu Heydekrug, Salzgitter 1985, p.88:
  • Margarete Auksutat, Lydia Batschansky, Ilse Behl, Johanna Jucewitsch, Martina Killus, Artur Kairies, Helmut Klein, Sigrid Kupffer, Rita Lax, Heinrich Ludszuweit, Siegfried Ludszuweit, Maximilian Müller (not on the photo?), Helene Neumann, Horst Oloff, Emil Sziegaud (not on the photo?), Benno Winkler.

Because of the initials on the caps you can identify most of the people. After searching two age-groups all the names are clear except for two:

  • middle row from the left: Benno Winkler, Hausmeister Gustav Fabian, Lehrer Mallon oder Ulrich (?), Helmut Klein, Artur Lautzas (1933) oder Arno Launert (1933), Heinz Maskolus (1933).

The links are not always secure.

Landfrauenschule - School for Country Women

Landfrauenschule
Pupils around 1930
Flea market in Heydekrug


Miscellaneous

Hospital

The district hospital of Heydekrug was in the Elchstraße [3] (today: Rusne gatve - even today there is a hospital in the same building):

District Hospital in Heydekrug
District Hospital in the 1930s
A room in the hospital in Heydekrug, from the1920s
Operation in the hospital in Heydekrug, left Dr. Horst Knuth, 1934


Traffic

  • In 1913 there was a (16km-long) railway from Heydekrug to Kolleschen.
The section does not exist today.
See: > Railway Heydekrug–Kolleschen
Railway station in Heydekrug, beginning of the 20th century.
Railway station in Heydekrug, in 2004
Timetable of the Insterburger Kleinbahn [25]


P h o t o s

Heydekrug
Heydekrug - Part of the Sziesze
Promenade near the Sziesze in Heydekrug
Harbour of Heydekrug
Flood in Heydekrug
Ice floes on the Sziesze


Maps

Heydekrug on Schroetterkarte (1796-1802) 1:50 000
© Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Schroetter map from 1802, scale 1: 160000


Heydekrug on Preußischen Urmesstischblatt 1860
© Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz
Heydekrug and surroundings on Preußischen Urmesstischblatt 1860
© Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz


Heydekrug on Messtischblatt 0694 Heydekrug, 0695 Gaidellen (1910-1940)
with the municipal boundaries of 1938
© Bundesamt für Kartographie und Geodäsie
City map of Heydekrug


Heydekrug in 2010

Ev. church in Heydekrug (photo: Walter Keck)
The vicarage in Heydekrug (photo: Walter Keck)


Ev. church in Heydekrug (Walter Keck)
Churchportal of the Ev. church in Heydekrug


Firestation in Heydekrug, built in 1911
The former market place in Heydekrug (photo: Walter Keck)



Further Geneological Sources

Internet links

Photoalbum Heydekrug Partly edition of Heydekrug: Local heritage book


Heydekrug, To sledge on the Sziesze
Good-Bye from Heydekrug, in 1972
Heydekrug, merchants?
Who knows the people?
The one with the arrow is Max Jacomeit


Chance Discoveries

Often people, who were not born locally in the area, are found mentioned in church books or other archive source material of a place. These findings are chance discoveries. Such findings are sometimes the only opportunity to break through the Brick Wall in research. On the following page you can add chance discoveries related to this place or even find one for yourself.



Data from the Genealogical Place Database (GOV)

GOV-Id HEYRUGKO05RI
name
type
  • settlement (- 1941-09-26)
  • town (1941-09-27 -) Source
postal code
  • LT-5730 (2004)
w-Number
  • 66131
external id
  • geonames:594656
  • nima:-2619111
map
   

TK25: 694

Affiliations
Superordinate objects

Werden (1907) ( parish ) Source S. 90/91

Heydekrug, Šilutė ( rural municipality municipality Stadt ) Source

Szibben (Hl. Kreuz), Žibai, Heydekrug, Šilutė, Heydekrug (Hl. Kreuz) (1907) ( parish ) Source S. 90/91

Subordinate objects
name type GOV-Id Timespan
Heydekrug church object_169344


Sources

  1. Werden Taufenbuch 1710-1728 book of baptisms in Werden
  2. Dietrich Lange: Geographisches Ortsregister Ostpreußen einschließlich des Memelgebietes, des Soldauer Gebietes und des Reg.-Bez. Westpreußen (1919-1939), a geographical register of places in East Prussia
  3. Generalhufenschoß 1719-1766, Schulzenamt Memel, Hubenzahl 1719, Buch Nr. 3, Staatliches Archivlager, Göttingen, 1962, a taxlist
  4. Sembritzki, Johannes u. Bittens, Arthur: Geschichte des Kreises Heydekrug, Memel 1920, a history of the county Heydekrug
  5. Schroettermap (1796-1802), scale 1:50 000
  6. Schroettermap (1802), scale 1:160000
  7. GOV: http://gov.genealogy.net/
  8. GOV: http://gov.genealogy.net/
  9. Klussis, Mikkels: Deutsch-Prußisches Grundwörterbuch, Institut Européen des Minorités Ethniques Dispersées mit Unterstützung des deutsch-prußischen Vereins Tolkemita, Vilnius 1999,a German- Prussian dictionary
  10. Kurschat, Alexander: Litauisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1968, a Lithuanian-German dictionary
  11. Sembritzki, Johannes u. Bittens, Arthur: Geschichte des Kreises Heydekrug, Memel 1920, a history of the County Heydekrug
  12. Dietrich Lange: Geographisches Ortsregister Ostpreußen einschließlich des Memelgebietes, des Soldauer Gebietes und des Reg.-Bez. Westpreußen (1919-1939), a geographical register of places in East Prussia
  13. Generalhufenschoß 1719-1766, Schulzenamt Memel, Hubenzahl 1719, Buch Nr. 3, Staatliches Archivlager, Göttingen, 1962, a taxlist from 1719- 1766
  14. Überlegungen Martinas Pareigis, thoughts of Martinas Pareigis
  15. Sembritzki, Johannes u. Bittens, Arthur: Geschichte des Kreises Heydekrug, Memel 1920, history of the County Heydekrug
  16. Dietrich Lange: Geographisches Ortsregister Ostpreußen einschließlich des Memelgebietes, des Soldauer Gebietes und des Reg.-Bez. Westpreußen (1919-1939), geographical register of places of East Prussia
  17. Sembritzki, Johannes u. Bittens, Arthur: Geschichte des Kreises Heydekrug, Memel 1920, history of the County Heydekrug
  18. Sembritzki, Johannes u. Bittens, Arthur: Geschichte des Kreises Heydekrug, Memel 1920, history of the County Heydekrug
  19. Amtsblatt Gumbinnen 1939: Neugliederung der Gemeinden und Gutsbezirke im ehemaligen Memelland ab 1. Mai 1939, S. 64ff,
    http://www.memelland-adm.de/Archiv/13 Verwaltungsbezirke/index.htm
  20. Dietrich Lange: Geographisches Ortsregister Ostpreußen einschließlich des Memelgebietes, des Soldauer Gebietes und des Reg.-Bez. Westpreußen (1919-1939), geographical register of places of East Prussia
  21. http://www.memelland-adm.de/heydekrug.html
  22. http://www.judeninostpreussen.de/upload/pdf/memel.pdf, about Jews in East Prussia
  23. Generalhufenschoß 1719-1766, Schulzenamt Memel, Special Protocoll 1719, Buch Nr. 2, Staatliches Archivlager, Göttingen, 1962, a taxlist
  24. Generalhufenschoß 1719-1766, Schulzenamt Memel, Hubenzahl 1719, Buch Nr. 3, Staatliches Archivlager, Göttingen, 1962, a taxlist
  25. from the Heydekruger Kreisblatt Nr. 17, vom 29.02.1916, a newspaper
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