Prussians

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The Eastern Balts are shown in brown hues while the Western Balts are shown in green. The boundaries are approximate.
Prussian Tribal Ares 13th Century

The Prussians are a western Baltic nation that has risen in German. They were also known under the names Old Prussia, Pruzzen or Pruteni, the spelling Pruzzen is from the Middle Ages, when the s, which, like the old German downward curving z looks up, for the voiceless ss and was later shown in roman letters as zz .

Contents

Proper name

The proper name is Prūsai with a long "u" said. The linguists disagree on the interpretation: "prūta / prūota" (intelligence, wisdom), "prūsna" (face), "prūsas" (tall), "prūsiskai" (clever, intelligent), old Indian "purusah ( Humans).

Geography

The settlement of the Prussians was between the Vistula River (in the opinion of some linguists west of the Vistula to the Persante River in Pomerania) and Minge River, which comes from the north and ends at Heydekrug (Ṧilute) in the delta of the Memel River.

Tribal Areas

History

Occupation by the Teutonic Order

Wall frieze Cathedral Gniezno

Subjugation

“A pagan Old Prussian“: Warrior with clubs; bast sandals on his feet (Pareisgen) which not stuck in the swamp.

The order took Old Prussian castles that were built of wood, earth and stones. However, he also built castles of fired bricks, where prisoners of war and Old Prussian peasants rendered forced labor. These castles were usually sufficient for 2,000 men and came to a supply store, which was scheduled for a two-year siege. The military and organizational superiority of the Knights led the Old Prussian chiefs to negotiate, especially since the club than their traditional weapon, had proved unsuccessful. In contrast to the Zemaites (Samogiten / Samaiten) and Lithuanians had the Prussians not been able to agree on a king. Especially those chiefs negotiated successfully, which had been lured with promises (including the one that no one should be forced to baptism). German and Polish priests were trying to spread Christianity. In addition, they sent some Prussian boys to Germany, especially to Magdeburg, to inform them in Christian doctrine and German language. However, many of these boys were in the liberation struggle again on their countrymen.

Under the protection of built castles settled before the castles (called Lischke) craftsmen, tradesmen and farmers, it's so that they grew rapidly into cities. Later on in the city ordinances were discriminatory points included to allow Prussians, Poles, Lithuanians and Jews living was not welcome in the cities, in towns only German settled. On the flat land, they were initially also retained their ancestral property, then this has been made of the baptism dependent. The conquest was operated under the pretext of Christianity: "... The Order should take the trouble of the war itself, the invasion and the conquest of land in the Old Prussians - integriendum et ad terram optinendum Pruszie -, honor and praise of God - ad honorem et gloriam veri Dei - that is, with the aim of forcing the pagans to be baptized." In general, the defeated tribes, the demand for acceptance of baptism was brought. If they do not follow the demand, so it was partially extracted under torture and threat of death, partly by public minds of some people, so that it preferred the others face of these facts, to the call to baptism quickly. There have been many other voluntary converts, but for the new converts was always the danger of the unbridled greed of the neighboring Christian princes. Moreover, they were discouraged by the requirement that their property go into the possession of the church, if no male successors are available. The source positions relative to the horrors inflicted the Knights is weak, because the archives of the Order are kept closed until today.

The chronicler Peter of Dusburg prefers to gloss over the deeds of the Order, but to highlight the iniquities of the Prussians. He reported on the plight of the new colonists from Germany, which had attracted the Order to strengthen its position that they cultivate their fields only under cover of darkness and then still could not be certain that their crop was not stolen or destroyed. The plight of the Prussians, which their lands and thus their livelihood has been withdrawn he does not see. Only the chronicler Simon Grunau, there are passages that point to the violence of the Knights.

Grand Master Sigfried von Feuchtwangen adopted by a number of discriminatory laws in 1307: Who holds Prussian servants should send them to the church and to confession; no one may speak of the Prussian language (pay three marks penalty); in the cities and suburbs, no one of the Prussians may be superior, only the wild country they are to cultivate the land; if a servant runs away his rule, one should look for it and nailed the ear; no one has permission to to give a runaway peasants or servants in his house protection (pay thirty marks penalty); no farmer may have more than two horses, or they will be removed.

Only with the peace charter of 1249 were the Prussians rights: free employment law, far-reaching law of succession, conditional sale right on furniture, selling rights of property, the right to free and independent from secular and ecclesiastical courts, the cases lead to offspring of noble families could rise to knighthood , obligation to pay the tithes from the barns to the Order, obligation to attend all trips war, weapons, depending circumstances (But with provision of a security deposit equivalent to the value, so as not to enemies overran the Orders. The Order had always use pre-emption). All rights were lost, however, when someone fell off the pagan. Rights, possessions and privileges were thus associated with good behavior, Baptism and Christianity. Motivations for the legendary Prussian uprisings was next to all these constraints and wrong-doing disappointment over broken promises of the Knights, coupled with favorable political constellations.

Prussian uprisings

Flag of the Prussians. Above (from left) the gods Patolos, Perkunos, Potrimpos

During the 13th Century did the Teutonic Knights by steady flow of new forces, after long struggles to subdue the Prussians and Christianize. In the villages, mostly inhabited by Prussians converted chiefs were employed as managers, were highly unpopular with their own people, especially as they rounded up the peasants by force subjugated to forced labor. This exploitation with broken promises (especially in matters of faith) increased the indignation of the Prussians. Peter von Dusburg and Simon Grunau describe crimes of the Teutonic Knights, which they committed in rage over the tenacious hold of the Prussians to their gods and their shrines. This prompted the Prussians revolts, which were soon with terrible force on the occupied land. The Pomeranian Prince Swantopolk came to the rescue, perhaps not quite disinterestedly, he had seen that the Order is not satisfied with the enslavement of the Prussians but wanted to build a powerful state. Consequently, it took the excommunication of the pope. Then he was considered an outlaw.

Meanwhile, the Prussians had regained almost all their territory, even taken some Teutonic castles. Only the castles Elbing, Balga, Thorn, Kulm, Rhedin defied the attacks. The Duke of Mazowsze helped the Order, so that it could regain the Chelmno Land. Pope Innocent IV called in 1243 for a crusade against the Prussians. Svantepolk was forced in 1244 to peace negotiations, the contract he signed, but only after the order had given an assurance not to continue the war and abandon the suppression of the Prussians. The Order did not consider these promises. Svantepolk ran in 1245 the insurgent Prussians to their aid and drove the Knights. The order remained the only castles Balga, Elblag, Kulm and Thorn.

While Prussians and Pomeranians had exhausted itself in the long struggle, the Order constantly recruited new knights, usually only a year, rarely two, were under arms. It was necessary to engage himself in 1249 on peace negotiations. In Christburg 18 points in the reciprocal rights and obligations has been set. The rights and obligations differences are not significantly different from the Germans. Nevertheless, the Prussians not laid off their weapons, the promise had too often proved to be fragile. Because of the inaccessibility of the area could be no question of domination by the Knights certainly not by a continuous collection of taxes.

1250 ended an attempt to subjugate the Natangs, with the defeat of the Order. After Simon Grunau 54 knights and armor-bearer in 1500 were killed. Not yet conquered Galindians wanted to forestall their subjugation and turned to the Dukes of Kujawy and Mazovia. The Order did not agree, and led in 1253 with the help of freshly arrived a crusader campaign against the Barter and Galindians. As most residents had fled, there were no major fighting.

Meanwhile, the Order prepared with all their might before the conquest of Samland. Poppo of Osterna since 1254 Master of the Order, received help from Ottokar of Bohemia, Knights of Saxony, Thuringia, Meissen, Brandenburg and the Rhine. After Simon Grunau it should have been 60 000, which would probably be too high. Also supported the Margrave of Brandenburg, the Bishop of Kulm, Warmia and Ölnitz and Rudolf von Habsburg, the war enterprise. Prior to this superiority arose the Samländer and were baptized. The weak resistance of the Samländer can probably be justified by the fact that had developed due to centuries of overseas trading a propertied class, which the Commander of Burkhart Hornhausen guaranteed their property. Not infrequently, they were still 15 to 25 Family allocated from the people, and obliged them to obey. The nobles were paying in contrast to the subordinate families no taxes. In 1255 the Knights built in place of the Old Prussian castle Twangste (Tuvangste) the castle of Königsberg to secure their conquest.

1256, the Natang raised again, a year later came the first uprising in Samland. In the coming years, it tried to Old Prussian detachments (with regard to their promise) in negotiations with the Order of the reduction of taxes and compulsory labor to achieve. The Order Vogt Walrod Mirabilis makes such a delegation at the meeting include, and burn the house. Then in six landscapes broke out a general uprising. Dusburg and Grunau report that the head of the uprisings were those boys who were formed by the Knights at German schools, who knew about the warfare of the Order well. These were Auctuno from Pogesania, Synko from Pomesania, Glappo from Warmia, Dyvane Clekine "The Bear" from Barta, Herkus Monte from Natanga and Richard Glande from the Samland.

The Order could only hold back his big castles, until a new army was brought under Henry to Rechenberg. This was hardly any resistance, since the Prussians had retreated into their barricades in the woods. Then, in the near Pokarben in Natangians attacked the Prussians under Hercus Monte the Crusaders and prepared them a crushing defeat. A second army of the Order was destroyed in 1263 by Richard Glande. The Castles of Heilsberg, Braunsberg could be taken while Konigsberg, Kreuzburg and Bartenstein remained in possession of the Knights. With the help of the Livonian and renegade Old Prussian chiefs (called Withinge that were rewarded with preferential locations), the Order won back the Samland in 1264.

Barta, Natangians, parts Warmi, Pogesanien Pomesania and was dominated by Prussians. Under the leadership of Hercus Monte castles were taken using siege machines: first Kreuzburg, then Bartenstein. The Order suffered another defeat at Löbau. In a crusade sermon by Pope Urban IV says: "Not without tears, we have heard, as for the matter of faith, which has been promoted in those lands under such infinite pains and afflictions, recently almost 1,000 monks by the cruel hand of the infidels are killed." Then in 1265 came another army of knights, which because of the mild winter could not accomplish anything, as the swamps of East Prussia foreigners could only be entered with frost. The Knights were satisfied with the building of castles Tapiau and Brandenburg on the Vistula Lagoon [59] and then went off again.

Svantepolk died in 1266, and his son Mestwin continued the policy of his father, as he blocked the Vistula and shipping supplies to the Order section. In that time, the Bartians stormed under Clekine Christburg and Pomesanians under Synko Marienwerder. The defense took place mainly in the western tribal areas. From the south came the Suduvians under chief Skomand to help. They conquered Löbau, besieged Kulm and Thorn, destroyed the forts Starkenberg and Wartenberg. The castle Rhedin was conquered again and recovered with the help of Mazowsze. 1271 moved Clekine to Schönburg before, but died without having stormed the castle. Pope Clement IV called on a new crusade, then in 1272 Pope Gregory X. This time, the Teutonic army was aided by a strong winter. Glappo fell, Hercus Monte fell into the hands of the Knights and was murdered. Glande had fallen as Synko. Auctumo just kept on fighting. The haste Suduvians were pushed back. Thirteen years had taken the last great struggle for freedom, but now deprived of their leaders, gave the Prussians on their resistance and surrendered.

Only the three northern tribes of Nadruvians, Scalovians and Suduvians were undefeated. With the help of new crusaders in 1276, the Nadruvians were subjected to, but many residents fled to neighboring Lithuania. 1277 pushed the Knights into Scalovia, but met with little resistance. The Skalvians were moved to break the tribal band. The 1278 military campaign against the Suduvians who often received support from the Lithuanians, ended in defeat. 1283 could be beaten this tribe and Skomand could be moved to baptism. As a reward he received the manor Stegnio (later Steegen). The Suduvians have also been relocated: into scalovian areas and into the Samland (Sudauer angle). The last unconquered Suduvians moved with their chief Skurdo to Lithuania and did not return. After 53 years, all the Old Prussian tribal areas were subjected. The conquerors did not feel safe, because they build other constructions of castles and fortifications.

Alleged extinction

During the Old Prussian uprisings came as a result of war and resettlement of a large number of Prussians killed, some researchers speak of 20 to 50% of the population. The still in the 19 and early 20 Century stated hypothesis that up to 80% of the Prussians were killed is now considered no longer tenable. Authors posed by the killing of up to 50% of the Old Prussian population overlooked in mind that many Prussians, who opposed the Christianization, fled into the then still pagan Lithuania and later as "Lithuanians" were located and returned. Later, the settlement of German knights, peasants and citizens from all countries was encouraged. The pagan culture of the Prussians was suppressed by the Christian Church. Nevertheless, the Prussians could still retain their ethnic identity until about 1700.

The national language was Low German, which was later replaced by the High German. Unofficially, i.e. at home, the local people spoke several languages (in sources of the 16th century by a "babble of languages" spoken, especially in the Memelland). In the south they spoke a mixed language from Masovian, Polish, Lithuanian, Old Prussian and Low German words, in the north from Old Prussian, Curonian, Latvian, Samogitians, Lithuanian and Low German words.

A nursery rhyme end of the 19th Century in "babble of languages":

  • "Willi, Willi lop nach Haus, grum perkunji bus litaus" (Willi, Willi, going home, it grumbles thunderstorm, there is just rain)

Today's relics of the Old Prussian language are mainly found in the Memel country, and in polonized place names in the former East Prussia. Thus we find in the eastern Mazury the Skomanten location on the same lake points to the last Suduvian chief Skomand who gave up his fight in 1283 against the Teutonic Order. On the eastern shore of Lake Skoment was the beginning of the 20th A century ramparts studied. Here a silver treasure was found.

Religion

Old Prussian gods Patolos, Perkunos and Potrimpos

Era before the arrival of the Knights

The religion of the Old Prussians, a natural religion as the Japanese Shintoism. The chronicler of the Knights Peter von Dusburg reported: "And because they knew not God, so it was that they mistakenly honored all creation as God, namely the sun, the moon and the stars, birds and beasts to the toad. They also had sacred groves, fields and waters, so that they hew wood in it to designate fields and catch fish do not dare."

In the older female religious layer especially the sun goddess Saule, her daughter, the earth goddess Semine and the goddess of fate Laima be venerated. From this period are the solstice festivities. The Earth Goddess is represented by near-Earth animals like snake and toad. At family gatherings was in honor of the Semine (affectionately called Seminele), the first drink is always on the ground. In the later Indo-European male religious layer is highest in the fact not callable Deiwus (Lith. Dievas, Latv. Deivs, Curonian Dievs, Latin Deus). The gods placed below Patolos, Perkunos, Potrimpos were therefore in the people as the highest gods. In the pagan religion there was neither devil nor hell. In the course of Christianity was the death god Patolos given the Polish name Pikollos (devil). Perkunos is represented as a goat. In his honor, were maintained in sacred groves and forests, mistletoe-covered oak trees eternal fire.

In natural religion is not believed in reincarnation. It takes two souls: The Wele (Lithuanian Vele) is an ethereal shadow creature that rises to the gods, the Dusin (Lithuanian Siela) is the part of the soul, which remains near the grave site and thus maintains contact with the bereaved. Thats why cemeteries were always created on hills so that the Wele could easily ascend to the gods. Thus the Dusin was not injured, were trees and shrubs are not pruned in cemeteries. Table and bench were used for special meals that were taken with the dead. Later, when the graveyard duty was introduced, it was not rare that bodies were dug up and secretly buried on the hill. The fencing of the souls in the cemetery was an unbearable thought. In children who cry constantly, they pushed this peculiarity to the unwanted baptism, so that it washed away in complicated rituals.

The era of the Teutonic Knights

Wedding ceremony 1565

The Order required the early baptism of infants, sanctioned for not complying with punishment. The result was that this often led to death of the infant and the mother, especially since the wide roads were particularly difficult during the winter. In the final phase of the Knights were held for the amusement of the nobility, the so-called "Lithuania travel" to northern East Prussia and Memel in the country: "The Austrian Duke Albrecht enters 1377 with 150 men a ride to Prussia, heavily armed, horse and boat. Even the Grand Master and his own people take food for three weeks in honor of the guest. The army marched through the no man's land in the region of Insterburg up to Szeszupe river. The sailors arrived, the rowers spared no effort. From noon to evening were present in 30 000 men with 610 ships. Three horses and a servant were drowned. The army brought his guest to Samogitia. A wedding was held there and the new guests came uninvited. A dance was kicked with the pagan, that their dead were 60. The village was on fire red. I would not want to be groom. What hurt them was good for us. What a joy! The pagan defended themselves at night, stabbed, beat and shot, they shouted in a loud voice like wild animals. They stabbed the knight, they shot horses and then fled into the swamps. As was morning, broke up the army, set fire to everything that the skies were burning. We saw there many women with 2 children tied to the body, one forward, one back, on a horse, they came without spurs barefoot ridden. The pagans were suffering great hardship. We caught a lot of them tied the hands and led them as the Hounds." (Travel poem "From Duke Albrecht chivalry" of the Herald's Peter Suchenwirt)

The era of the Prussian dukes and kings

Even centuries later, these incidents had so deeply entrenched in the popular memory, that one in 1840 in the newspaper "Provincial Leaves" consider how to contain the conspicuously high infant mortality. Thus describes a landowner: "On the flat land there is generally used, that not only young children, aged 5 to 6 days, at any time of year for the, often miles distant, churches are brought to baptism; the mothers go to church so that they do not evade any longer their domestic affairs, because the people are of the opinion that it is punishable for a new mother when she leaves the house before she has been in the Church." At the same time the landowner complains against the clergy: "The pastor takes it amiss, if we let not baptize the next Sunday the children who are born in the week, because, if the child dies before baptism, the baptismal is forfeited." A preacher Krause from Nibudschen replied: "When the German Knights subjugated the natives of our country and in 1249 closed the first peace settlement, because the new converts had to promise the child born at once, or at least within 8 days, in the church to bring to baptism. A habit that has grown 600 years ago, needs a hundred more years to be no more habit".

Music of the Old Prussians

Hat dance of the Prussians, danced only by men.
Rue dance of the Prussians, danced only by women.

Many melodies turn after the ancient Greek music theory. You hear Aeolian, Mixolydian, Dorian and Phrygian tunes, especially a lot of mixed-Harmony. The Old Prussian songs are compared with the Lithuanian lot of archaic, which has contributed much of the Reformation. For it was taught the singing of psalms and hymns. This "German" melodies and shapes were completely different from the Old Prussian. People were forbidden to sing folk songs at home, so they were pushed into the ground and could not continue in the normal group singing.

The pentatonic songs of the rural population identify themselves by characteristic Quart jumps, while the jumps of the fishermen's songs include fifths, sixths and octaves up and emulate so the rocking of the ship. The fishermen songs are also missing incorporate syncopation and dance rhythms. Typical of Old Prussian songs are also chromatic melodies with well identifiable modulation. The deeply religious people had to pray in a foreign language and sing strange songs, so their religion was not satisfied. Thus, the "German" songs were embellished in their favor, and the organist had to adapt to the community for better or worse, if that sounds moved in the length or truncated, or even the middle of the chant the rhythm changed.

"During the recording and writing notes in the most beautiful thing is lost, what can not be expressed. Like the song of birds escape the sudden ascensions, the rapid waste, the gentle folk of the evanescent any attempt to capture it and display it in character." In dance songs often changes the rhythm, so that is often necessary to change into the 5/4-time. In general, the 2/4-time and 3/8-time are preferred, less likely to 6/8-time. Most songs are based on a wistfulness, a melancholy. The relationship between minor and major, is about 6:1.

"If they sit in the evening by the fire, sound the long-drawn melancholy songs of the Dzimken (wood rafters), once one reaches for the violin or bagpipes, the others hold each other's hands and jump and dance in a circle. The dance is often a solo, often mimic a dance around each other and against each other, with the rapid rotation is particularly interesting. The upper body moves a little, but the feet are inexhaustible in small, delicate turns and jumps. The weak form of the Dzimken developed at the dance all the beauty of which she is capable. The violin plays a skipping melody, dancers and audience clapping hands, echoing the beat, one or the other probably is breaking out in a bright shriek with delight."

  • Szoka kiszkis, szoka lapė, szoka wisi žwėris (dancing the hare, dancing the fox, dancing all animals)
  • ir tas briedis, il garietis, ir tas ne tylėju. (even the elk with long legs do not rest in the forest.)

"The Lithuanian youth exceeds the German youth in faster learning of the heaviest tunes, be it secular or spiritual, you can not hear their melodious rhythmic singing without movement. When the girls sing their love songs, her voice sounds in a soft voluptuous melting, and the same expression then deposited around the mouth and eyes, so that the stranger if he does not understand a word but the meaning guesses."

Instruments were all produced yourself. They grew almost everywhere in nature, they had only a little dressing. Were very popular string instruments such as violin, fiddle, cello and kantele or kankle. The kantele was originally only five strings, but was later covered with up to 23 strings. They were in different sizes and were usually tuned to D major or D minor. Flutes were in any size, often they were provided with a cow horn as a sound amplifier. A special flute was the Trimiete, the long version called Trubas. These were so long as an alphorn and were produced from whole trees, which were divided according to the length and eroded. Then they were glued together with pitch and wrapped in birch bark and bands. The smaller but still very loud Trimiete was used by herd boys on forest pastures and played mostly fourth-and sixth intervals.

Scripture of the Old Prussians

Scripture of the Old Prussians; "God Korche! Angry with the enemies, do them harm."

It is generally reported that the Prussians would have had no writing. This claim was probably the assumption that they had defeated an uncivilized barbaric people. Archaeological finds show a brisk trade with Greece, Rome, Caucasian countries, England and Scandinavia. The Prussians were thus in contact with cultures in which writing was known. Simon Grunau writes of two banners, each four cubits long and three yards wide. The battle flag shows the three main gods and has an inscription in Runic characters which are difficult to translate. Similar runes are found on the rune stone Jelling/ (Denmark). It is not excluded that those from the 5./ 6. Century dating script was brought from Gotland, brought by King Waidewut and his brother, the Kriwe (priest) Bruteno. Over time, characters were added that may be the archaic Greek origin. The second flag shows the coat of arms Waidewut or another prince. The shield is held upright by two white horses in jumping position. The sign even a bear in human form with open mouth and protruding tongue is shown. After Hartknoch they should also have had an inscription. Both flags were still in the 13 Century uses. The inscription of the war flag (written by Simon Grunau 1326) means: "God Korche! Angry with the enemies, do them harm."

The Prussians sent their messages in node font. Threads and cords in different colors and sizes were hung on the "Kriwulen," the snake-Staves and expressed food, dangers, and from other materials. The amounts have been shown by the number of nodes. The cracks in the runic showed the sender and receiver. Other signs were found on wooden boards, clay objects, skins, tree bark, sticks and bones.

Monuments

Already Simon Grunau wrote down 89 words, but he was accused to have not understood them. During the time of the Reformation was still widely spoken Old Prussian. Since that time there were serious efforts of Lutheran pastors of the Old Prussian people teach Christianity. Already in 1545, the Catechism was issued in Old Prussian language. The problem was the different dialects. This is the name for example the bear "clokis" (Barta), "klokijs" (Samland), "tlokijs" (Samland and Zemaitians), "tlakis" (Sudavians) and "meška" (Scalvians and Nadruvians). The language was divided into many dialects, and so they had the idea to construct from all the different dialects a common dialect, which all are equally understandable. But since it was on the contrary, all incomprehensible, so they determined the Samland dialect than the best known.

Lord's Prayer

Lord's Prayer after Simon Grunau

  • Nossen Thewes, cur tu es Delbes,
  • Schwiz gesger thowes Wardes;
  • Penag mynys thowe Mystalstibe;
  • Toppes Pratres giriad Delbszisne, tade tymnes sennes Worsinny;
  • Dodi momines an nosse igdenas Magse;
  • Unde geitkas pamas numas musse Nozegun, cademas pametam nusson Pyrtainekans;
  • No wede numus panam Padomum;
  • Swalbadi mumes newusse Layne. Jesus. Amen.

Lord's Prayer after Prätorius

  • Thewes nossen, cur tu es Debbes,
  • Schwisch gesger thowes Wardes;
  • Pena mynis thowe Wiswalstybe;
  • Toppes Patres gir iat Delbeszisne, tade tymnes senjnes Worsinny;
  • Annosse igdenas Mayse dodi mums szon Dien;
  • Pamutale mums musu Noschegun, kademas pametan nousson Pyktainekans;
  • No wede numus panam Paadomam;
  • Swalbadi numes ne wust Tayne.

Lord's Prayer in mixed dialects

  • Thawe nuson kas tu asse Andangon,
  • Swintits wirst twais Emmens;
  • Pergeis twais Laeims;
  • Twais Quaits audasseisin na Semmey, key Andangon;
  • Nusan deininan Geittin deis numons schindeinan;
  • Bha atwerpeis numans nuson Auschautins, kay mas atwerpimay nuson Auschautenikamans;
  • Bha ny wedais mans Enperbandan;
  • Sclait is rankeis mans assa Wargan. Amen

Lord's Prayer in the dialect of Insterburg (Prediger Hennig)

  • Tewe musu, kurs essi Danguje,
  • Buk szwenczamas Wardas tawo,
  • Ateik tawo Karalijste;
  • Buk tawo Walle kaip Daguje, taip ir an Zemes;
  • Duna musu dieniszka duk mums ir sze Diena;
  • Atleisk mums musu Kaltes, kaip mes atoeidzjam sawo Kaltiems;
  • Ne wesk mus Pagundima;
  • Bet gelbek mus nu Pikto.

Lord's Prayer in the dialect of Nadruvia (Simon Prätorius)

  • Tiewe musu, kursa tu essi Debsissa,
  • Szwints tiest taws Wards;
  • Akeik mums twa Walstybe;
  • Tawas Praats buk kaip Debbesissa taibant wirszu Sjemes;
  • Musu dieniszka May e duk mums ir szen Dienan;
  • Atmesk mums musu Griekus, kaip mes pammetam musi Pardokonteimus;
  • Ne te wedde mus Baidykle;
  • Bet te passarge mus mi wissa Louna (Pikta)

Literature

  • Brauer, Wilhelm Reinhold: Baltisch-Prussische Siedlungen westlich der Weichsel, Nicolaus-Copernicus-Verlag, Münster 1988
  • Buga, Kazimieras.: Die Vorgeschichte der aistischen Stämme, Leipzig 1924
  • Crome, Hans: Die Burgen der alten Preußen, Burg „Kadina“, 1926, Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte Ost- und Westpreußens 1926-1931, Tolkemita-Texte Dieburg
  • Crome, Hans: Längswälle in Ostpreußen, Königsberg 1937, Tolkemita-Texte Dieburg
  • Crome, Hans: Die Kriegsführung der alten Preußen, in Mitteilungen des Vereins für die Geschichte von Ost- und Westpreußen, Jahrgang 8 1934, Tolkemita-Texte Dieburg
  • Diehlmann, Hans Heinz: Die Türkensteuer im Herzugtum Preußen 1540, Band 1 Fischhausen- Schaaken- Neuhausen- Labiau, Verein für Familienforschung in Ost- und Westpreußen Hamburg 1998
  • Diehlmann, Hans Heinz: Die Türkensteuer im Herzogtum Preußen 1540, Band 2, Memel – Tilsit, Hamburg 2006
  • Diehlmann, Hans Heinz: Erbhuldigungsakten des Herzogtums Preußen, 1.Teil 1525 bis 1642, Hamburg 1980
  • Dusburg, Peter von: Chronica Terre Prussie, Darmstadt 1984, ISBN 3-534-00604-6
  • Eckert, Rainer, Bukevičiute, Elvire-Julia, Hinze, Friedhelm: Die baltischen Sprachen, eine Einführung, Langenscheidt 1994, 5. Auflage 1998
  • Engel, C.: Vorgeschichte der altpreußischen Stämme, Königsberg 1935
  • Gaerte, Wilhelm: Urgeschichte Ostpreußens, Gräfe und Unzer, Königsberg 1929
  • Gaerte, W.: Das altpreußische Weiberfest, Tolkemita-Texte Dieburg
  • Gerullis, Georg: Die altpreußischen Ortsnamen, Berlin, Leipzig 1922
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